Soils can be ranked according to their phosphorus retention capacity by the phosphorus retention index (PRI). This is the ratio of phosphorus adsorbed by soil to that remaining in solution under a set of standard conditions. Although it is a laboratory measurement, the PRI seems to be a good indication of what happens in practice.
McPharlin, Ian; Delroy, Neil; Jeffery, Bob; Dellar, Greg; and Eales, Maurice
"Phosphorus retention of sandy horticultural soils on the Swan Coastal Plain,"
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 31
, Article 8.
Available at: http://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/journal_agriculture4/vol31/iss1/8