The onset of visual damage varied with the season. The symptoms consisted of marginal and tip necrosis in the early stages with the necrotic areas gradually expanding between the veins. In severe cases the leaves shed. Old leaves were affected first although foliage of any age was affected in cases of severe fluoride pollution. Plant analysis indicated that damage was associated with concentrations in excess of 20 ppm fluoride.
Number of Pages
Toxicity, Grapes, Fluoride
Cox, W J, and Jones, L T. (1981), Fluoride toxicity in grape vines : a case study. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Perth. Technical Bulletin 61.