Sheep, Bluetongue virus
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BLUETONGUE is a serious disease of sheep, mainly of introduced European breeds, throughout the African continent.
It is maintained there by wild and domestic ruminants in the presence of certain insect vectors (carriers).
The disease has probably existed there from immemorial times among the indigenous ruminants, emerging as a recognised disease only when the much more susceptible European breeds were brought into the continent.
Gardiner, M R.
"Bluetongue of sheep,"
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 9
, Article 5.
Available at: https://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/journal_agriculture4/vol9/iss2/5