Grains and field crops
Lupins sown 26/4. York gum/jam sandy loam 33 ppm bic. P. Wheat in 1989. Cultivation reduced yield (one pass banding points). Deep banding P overcame this reduction. No additional response to banding compared with TD or D. No response to P. Yield 2.0 t/ha.
Wheat sown 8/6. York gum/jam sandy loam 42 ppm bic. P. Lupins in 1989. All treatments had deep cultivation in the one pass. No response to deep band cf. drilled. 23% response to P. Top yield was 1.9 Oa.
88EB12 Wheat sown 5/6. Loamy grey sand/clay 27 ppm bic. P. Lupins in 1989. Seven per cent response to cultivation. Twenty four per cent response to P. Two pass deep P banding reduced yield by 8%. Top yield 2.7 Oa.
Pasture regenerated after 1989 wheat crop. Accidentally TD with P so no residual effects of deep P could be seen. No effects of previous years cultivation treatments.
Lupins on duplex sand/clay sown after wheat, deep P and cultivation treatments in 1989. Twenty five per cent response to a cultivation before sowing but no residual effect of previous years cultivations nor P placements although visually evident during the season. Top yield 1.2 t/ha. Cultivation response due to early weed control.
Lupins sown 26/5. Duplex sand/clay 43 ppm bic. P. Wheat in 1989. No response to cultivation, P rate nor P method despite a 50% total response in DM 108 D.A.S. with responses to each component. Possible lack of finishing moisture as yield averaged 1.3 t/ha.
In it's second year of pasture and to have tillage treatments and P deep banding in 1991 with wheat. Deep yellow sand. Serradella had better growth than subterranean clover (Dalkeith) which was better than murex (Tauro).
Lupins on deep yellow sand after deep P treatments for wheat in 1989 (new land). The residual value of deep banded P yielded > residual drilled > residual TD. Freshly drilled was > residual of deep banded. Top yield 1.2 t/ha.
Wheat after deep banded P for lupins in 1989. New land, yellow sandplain. Dry matter yields and nutrient uptakes showed residual of deep band > drill > TD due to N production in the lupin year. Eaten out by pink and grey galahs before harvest.
Lupins. Deep yellow sand 28 ppm bic. P. Wheat in 1989. Cultivation from deep points reduced yield by 9%. Deep P banding overcame this reduction. Average 12% response to P however no response when P was drilled. Top yield 1.7 t/ha.
Lupins. Deep yellow sand 32 ppm bic. P. Wheat in 1989. Cultivation from deep points reduced yield by 9%. Deep P banding partly overcame this reduction however TD yielded best and drilled worst. Average 9% response to P. Top yield 2.0 Oa. 132
Lupins. Deep white sands 11 ppm bic. P with 7 ppm at 75-100 cm down the profile. Wheat in 1989. Deep banded P outyielded TD (by 10% at the highest P rate) and drilled, with yields from drilled declining at rates above 200 kg/ha super. P response was greatest for banded, and was 845 kg/ha (32%). Top yield 3.5 t/ha.
Lupins. Deep white sand 14 ppm bic. P with 4 ppm to 40 cm. No response to cultivation. No response to P. No response to P application method (TD, D, band in 2-pass).
Wheat after P treatments on lupins in 1989. Brown sandy loam 21 ppm bic. P pre 1989 crop. Little response to previous application methods. 340 kg/ha response (26%) to previous P to a yield of 1.7 t/ha. Freshly applied 400 kg/ha super yielded 2.4 t/ha (82% response).
Trial 90M1 Lupins sown 25/4. Sandy loam 40 ppm bic. P (to 70 ppm at one end of trial where more clay). Thirty four per cent response to P. Twenty four per cent response to deep banding but nearly all of this response could be attributed to the effect of the cultivation on this compacted soil. Top yield 1.2 t/ha. Large vegetative responses. Rep 1 and 2 on slightly sandier duplex gave an average yield of 1.6 t/ha for 440 super banded at 12 cm, 0.4 t/ha better than TD or drilled. No apparent toxicity effect from drilled super although this was evident early in the season. In 1988 a lupin P banding trial in the same paddock gave large vegetative responses but a small banding yield response and no response to cultivation.
Wheat after lupins. Sandy loam 24 ppm bic. P. Sixty two per cent response to P with slight reduction (toxicity) in yield at 385 kg/ha super drilled with the seed. Overall no response to band cf. drilled. Top yield 2.2 t/ha.
Lupins at Carrabin on the first P deep banding site - yellow loamy sand. Residual value of P deep banded in 1987 produced a yield which was 40% of that freshly drilled in 1990. The residual of drilled 1987 was only 10% of the yield of freshly drilled. Drilled 400 kg/ha yielded 1 Oa, a 2-pass banding/seeding with the Pat 12 cm yielded 2.1 Oa.
Rotation trial yellow acid loamy sand. 200 kg/ha super drilled with the seed or banded 5 cm below the seed.
Lupins after wheat on wodgil soil with drilled and banded P both years. 16 ppm soil test before 1989 crop. The residual value of 380 kg/ha super banded produced twice the yield of lupins than the residual of drilled. However an additional 190 banded increased yield by an additional 150% and this was increased by an additional 60% by an extra 400 kg/ha of super. The top yield was 1.5 t/ha and for the 1990 treatments, deep banded averaged 50% (360 kg/ha) more than drilled.
Wheat with no fertilizer after lupin varieties and drilled and deep banded P rates. Yellow sandplain 15 ppm bic. P before 1989 crop. The residual value of P rates (and the N production by the lupins) increased wheat yield from 500 kg/ha to 890 kg/ha (from 285 kg/ha super) however freshly drilled 400 kg/ha super yielded 1630 kg/ha of wheat.
Wheat with no fertilizer after lupins with P rates TD, drilled and banded at two depths. Yellow sandplain. 15 ppm bic. P in March 1989. P rates (and N production) during the lupin year affected wheat yield, and P method affected yield to a lesser degree. Top yield was 1 t/ha from residual value of 380 kg/ha super and 1.73 Oa from an additional 400 kg/ha super.
Lupins on wodgil soil where P had been banded deep with an Agrowplow on 18 cm spacings before the previous wheat year. The residual value of 400 kg/ha banded super (best depth being 17 cm) produced a 200% lupin yield increase over drilled however this still only yielded 250 kg/ha when sown on May 19. Freshly banded 400 super yield 750 kg/ha. Freshly drilled 100 super on a recent paddock history of 1200 kg/ha super (including 400 drilled in 1989) yielded 90 kg/ha (and we planted 100 kg/ha!).
Lupins. Mallee sandplain 35 ppm bic. P. 1.2 t/ha recent super history. 100 kg/ha super banded yielded 0.25 t/ha more than 750 kg/ha of super topdressed. The topdressed yield was 1.16 t/ha. Banding 750 kg/ha super yielded 2.47 t/ha. Drilled was intermediate.
Medic and serradella. Mallee sandplain sown in 1990 to study regeneration and growth in 1991.
Lupins. Super history of 1000 kg/ha in the last three years. 21 ppm bic. P.
Peas. Mallee sandplain 21 ppm bic. P. With an average rate of super of 230 kg/ha, yields were; topdressed 1.27 t/ha, drilled 1.55 t/ha and banded 1.81 t/ha. There was a yield response to 400 kg/ha super. 134.
Wheat. Yellow sandplain 21 ppm bic. P. A 110% response to 390 kg/ha super with a top yield of 2.1 t/ha. No effect of deep placement.
Lupins. Wodgil yellow acid sandplain 28 ppm bic. P. 90SC16 was four demonstration blocks.
Was low yielding with the best yield being only 0.8 Oa from 200 kg/ha double super banded below the seed. Banding directly below the lupin seed was only 6% better than deep banding between the seed rows. Both deep placements were over 50% higher yielding than where P was drilled with the seed and over 200% better than where P was topdressed.
Lupins. Yellow sandplain with mallee 16 ppm bic. P. History of 1000 kg/ha super in the last three years. There was a large yield advantage (up to 700 kg/ha or 85% more grain) from banding compared with drilling with the seed from all P rates tested. Wide spacing yielded equal to narrow spacing (36 cm vs. 18 cm) when fertilizer was banded below the seed, however toxicity occurred at high rates drilled with the seed on wide spacings. TSP was slightly better than super at the higher rates (lower toxicity perhaps). Yield increased from 70 kg/ha with no P. to 1.6 t/ha with 180 kg/ha TSP banded below the seed. 90SC22 Lupins (Yorrel) sown May 24. Wodgil 25 ppm bic. P. The highest yield was only 550 kg/ha with a 32% response to deep banding compared with drilling. 20 kg/ha manganese sulphate was slightly toxic, whether drilled or banded. Gypsum banded had no effect, indicating that superphosphate banding responses are due to P and not Ca nor S.
Serena pasture. 11 ppm bic. P soil test before wheat was sown with P rates and deep placement 1989. No visual differences in pasture from cultivation methods, P rates or placement during the wheat year.
Lupins. Shallow grey sand/clay duplex. 26 ppm bic. P. Sown on 16/5 but a very dry year with maximum yield of 270 kg/ha. Drilled equal to deep banded (2-pass) and these doubled the yield from topdressed P at 100,200 and 300 kg/ha super. Nil P yielded 70 kg/ha. All treatments had cultivation.
Lupins after barley with and without deep banding in 1989. 22 ppm bic. P. Barley response to P in 1989 was 6%. Lupins 1990 responded by 132% with a top yield of 2.0 t/ha. Deep banding P in 1990 was 29% more effective than banding in 1989 and 43% more effective than drilling in 1989.
Wheat after lupins with deep banding and P treatments in 1989. 20 ppm bic. P. Wheat (sown with no super) gave a total yield increase of 0.9 t/ha due to the residual effects of P (and N production from the lupins). Most of the effect corresponded to the previous P rate. Top yield 2.8 t/ha.
Trial 89WH65 Sub. clover pasture after wheat seeding and placement methods in 1989. 16 ppm bic. P in 1987. No residual effects seen although sheep could not be removed to allow better observations.
Lupins - drilled and deep banded P blocks were set up however deep seeding of the drilled lupins made comparisons invalid. The paddock had never had lupins and there was no response to inoculation with the P banded treatment yielding 2.6 t/ha. 90WH1 Lupins. Elphin sand/gravelly sandy clay. Wheat 1989. 22 ppm bic. P. Pasture 1987, 1988. 1990 was the first lupin crop on the paddock. Roots affected by Rhizoctonia (?, to be investigated) which was worse where the deep digging points were used. P partly compensated although there was no response to P where the level float machine was used following TD, or when drilling P with the seed. Top yield 2.1 t/ha.
Wheat. Wongan loamy sand. Second wheat crop after pasture. A Mason/Jarvis trial investigating deep banding of agras, super and TD urea. 22 ppm bic. P. Deep banding removed the early season toxic effect of agras 150, 300 kg/ha drilled with the seed. However the grain yields showed no treatment differences except for a small response to fertilizer (probably P, and not N, when comparing with adjacent trial 90WH72). Top yield 3.9 t/ha, fertilizer response was only 0.3 t/ha.
Canola after pasture 1989. Wongan sand 16 ppm bic. P. Weeds were a problem (doublegee) on all treatments. Deep banded P outyielded TD by 12%. Top yield 1.1 t/ha.
Wheat after wheat. Wongan loamy sand. 22 ppm bic. P. Yield increased from 3.5 t/ha to 4.1 t/ha with 400 kg/ha super. No response to deep banding compared with drilled with the seed.
Lupins. First lupin on this paddock. Wheat 1989. Elphin sand/gravelly clay. 30 ppm bic. P. Deep ripping before seeding outyielded DD or disc plowing. Mouldboard plowing had worst establishment and lower yield. Twenty six per cent response to P. Twenty one per cent response to deep banding compared with drilled with the seed. Top yield 2.0 t/ha.
Lupins. 22 ppm bic. P. A large demonstration trial with machine floats, deep banding, P rates, wide row spacing. Unreplicated, and a yield trend across the site made comparisons very rough. Fifty per cent response to P. No advantage of banding however depth was a problem at seeding (dry underneath). Wide rows appeared equal to narrow except at very high P. Yields from discs were reduced. There was no response to Mn and seed levels were satisfactory.
Number of Pages
Jarvis, R J. (1990), Deep phosphate banding.. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Perth. Report.